“Coherence radar,” an optical 3-D sensor based on short coherence interferometry, is used to measure skin surface topology. This method is called optical coherence profilometry (OCP) and it may be a useful tool for medical diagnosis in dermatology because different medical conditions show distinct alterations of the skin surface. The measuring uncertainty is less than 2 μm. The measuring time is about 4 s. in vivo 3-D mapping of naked skin was performed without preparation. For clinical application, a fiber optical implementation was introduced. Spectral radar is an optical sensor for the acquisition of skin morphology based on OCT techniques. The scattering amplitude a(z) along one vertical axis from the surface into the bulk can be measured within one exposure. No reference arm scanning is necessary. The theory of the sensor, including the dynamic range, is discussed and in vivo measurements of human skin by a fiber optical implementation of the sensor are demonstrated. © 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.