Research Papers

Erbium: yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser induced vapor bubbles as a function of the quartz fiber tip geometry

[+] Author Affiliations
Michael Mrochen, Peter Riedel

UKCGC, Technical University of Dresden, Department of Opthalmology, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307?Dresden, Germany

Christof Donitzky

Wavelight Laser Technologie AG, Erlangen, Germany

Theo Seiler

UKCGC, Technical University of Dresden, Department of Opthalmology, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307?Dresden, Germany

J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 344-350 (Jul 01, 2001). doi:10.1117/1.1381052
History: Received Dec. 20, 1999; Revised Jan. 24, 2001; Accepted Feb. 9, 2001
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Background. The use of modern erbium: yttrium–aluminum–garnet (YAG) laser systems in opthalmic microsurgery requires a precise knowledge of the size and dynamics of the laser induced vapor bubbles. The aim of this work was to clarify the possibilities of controlling the vapor bubble shape and size by using an optimized fiber tip geometry for various ophthalmic applications with the erbium: YAG laser. Methods. The mid-infrared radiation of free-running erbium: YAG laser was coupled optically into means of different low OH quartz fiber tips to investigate the vapor bubble formation in water by high-speed photography. The core diameter of four fiber tips ranged from 200 up to 940 μm. Fourteen fiber tips were polished at an angle graduated from 10° to 70° over the full core diameter (seven fiber tips) and over the half core diameter (seven fiber tips). Three fiber tips were produced to have a curvature at the distal end with curvature radii of 160, 230, and 420 μm. Results. The shape as well as the size of erbium: YAG laser induced vapor bubbles can be controlled systematically by using adequate fiber tip geometries. In detail, the used different angles and curvatures demonstrate that the propagation direction of the vapor bubbles can be estimated by optical modeling considering Snell’s law and the Fresnel laws at a quartz-air boundary. Beside this, the size of a vapor bubble can be predetermined by choosing ideal fiber tip geometries to reduce or increase the radiant exposure at the distal end of the quartz fiber tip. Conclusions. The good possibility of controlling the shape and size of vapor bubbles offers a wider range of new applications, especially in ophthalmic microsurgery such as erbium YAG laser vitrectomy. © 2001 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

© 2001 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Michael Mrochen ; Peter Riedel ; Christof Donitzky and Theo Seiler
"Erbium: yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser induced vapor bubbles as a function of the quartz fiber tip geometry", J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 344-350 (Jul 01, 2001). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1381052


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