Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has recently been a matter of keen interest from the points of both basic science and applications because by using the SERS effect one can obtain Raman signals even from a single molecule. Immunoassay is one of the most promising fields in the applications of SERS, and the purpose of this review paper is to discuss the potential of SERS in immunoassay. This paper consists of four parts work on the indirect and direct methods of immunoassay via SERS. These methods provide the laboratorial attempts on biomedical diagnostic applications of SERS. © 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.