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Research Papers

Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences

[+] Author Affiliations
Michael Liebling

California Institute of Technology, Beckman Institute, Biological Imaging Center, Mail Code 139-74, Pasadena, California 91125

Arian S. Forouhar, Morteza Gharib

California Institute of Technology, Division of Engineering & Applied Sciences, Options of Bioengineering and Aeronautics, Mail Code 138-78, Pasadena, California 91125

Scott E. Fraser, Mary E. Dickinson

California Institute of Technology, Beckman Institute, Biological Imaging Center, Mail Code 139-74, Pasadena, California 91125

J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (October 04, 2005). doi:10.1117/1.2061567
History: Received February 04, 2005; Revised April 07, 2005; Accepted May 06, 2005; Published October 04, 2005
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Being able to acquire, visualize, and analyze 3D time series (4D data) from living embryos makes it possible to understand complex dynamic movements at early stages of embryonic development. Despite recent technological breakthroughs in 2D dynamic imaging, confocal microscopes remain quite slow at capturing optical sections at successive depths. However, when the studied motion is periodic—such as for a beating heart—a way to circumvent this problem is to acquire, successively, sets of 2D+time slice sequences at increasing depths over at least one time period and later rearrange them to recover a 3D+time sequence. In other imaging modalities at macroscopic scales, external gating signals, e.g., an electro-cardiogram, have been used to achieve proper synchronization. Since gating signals are either unavailable or cumbersome to acquire in microscopic organisms, we have developed a procedure to reconstruct volumes based solely on the information contained in the image sequences. The central part of the algorithm is a least-squares minimization of an objective criterion that depends on the similarity between the data from neighboring depths. Owing to a wavelet-based multiresolution approach, our method is robust to common confocal microscopy artifacts. We validate the procedure on both simulated data and in vivo measurements from living zebrafish embryos.

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© 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Michael Liebling ; Arian S. Forouhar ; Morteza Gharib ; Scott E. Fraser and Mary E. Dickinson
"Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences", J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (October 04, 2005). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2061567


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