Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is potentially useful for imaging the nonsurgical remineralization of dental enamel. This study uses an all-fiber-based PS-OCT system operating at to image demineralized and fluoride-enhanced remineralized artificial lesions. PS-OCT images of lesions before and after remineralization are compared with the relative mineral loss , obtained from high resolution digital microradiography (DM), and chemical composition changes by infrared spectroscopy. Severe early artificial caries show a significant increase in perpendicular-axis integrated reflectivity after remineralization. After sectioning the samples, DM demonstrates that the lesions remineralized with new mineral and the lesion surface zone show significant restoration of mineral volume. PS-OCT and DM both do not show a major change in lesion depth. For less severe artificial caries, the perpendicular-axis image resolves the scattering and depolarization of an outer growth layer after remineralization. This outer layer has a mineral volume close to that of sound enamel, and spectroscopic analysis indicates that the layer is a highly crystalline phase of apatite, without carbonate substitutions that increase the solubility of sound enamel. This study determines that PS-OCT can image the effects of fluoride-enhanced remineralization of mild and severe early artificial in vitro caries.