The palpebral conjunctiva is an attractive location to qualitatively examine for the presence of anemia; however, this method of diagnosis has not been shown to be accurate. A spectroscopic examination of the palpebral conjunctiva enables the use of a quantitative parameter as a basis for diagnoses. Visible range diffuse reflectance spectra from the palpebral conjunctiva are examined from 30 patients and hemoglobin levels are extracted from these signatures using both a partial least-squares (PLS) multivariate regression model and a discrete spectral region model. Hemoglobin concentration derived from both these models is compared to an in vitro measurement of hemoglobin. Root mean squared errors of cross validation for the two analytical methods are and , respectively. Conjunctival reflectance spectra coupled with a PLS analysis achieve an enhanced specificity and sensitivity for anemia diagnoses over reported observational studies using the palpebral conjunctiva and achieve improved accuracy to other reported methods of noninvasive hemoglobin measurement.