We review the current state of research in endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first survey the range of available endoscopic optical imaging techniques. We then discuss the various OCT-based endoscopic methods that have thus far been developed. We compare the different endoscopic OCT methods in terms of their scan performance. Next, we examine the application range of endoscopic OCT methods. In particular, we look at the reported utility of the methods in digestive, intravascular, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems. We highlight two additional applications—biopsy procedures and neurosurgery—where sufficiently compact OCT-based endoscopes can have significant clinical impacts.