Research Papers

In vivo bladder imaging with microelectromechanical-systems-based endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography

[+] Author Affiliations
Zhenguo Wang

State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook, New York 11794

Christopher S. D. Lee, Wayne C. Waltzer

State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Urology, Stony Brook, New York 11794

Jingxuan Liu

State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Pathology, Stony Brook, New York 11794

Huikai Xie

University of Florida, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Gainesville, Florida 32611

Zhijia Yuan, Yingtian Pan

State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook, New York 11794

J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034009 (July 03, 2007). doi:10.1117/1.2749744
History: Received November 15, 2006; Revised January 26, 2007; Accepted January 29, 2007; Published July 03, 2007
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We report the recent technical improvements in our microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based spectral-domain endoscopic OCT (SDEOCT) and applications for in vivo bladder imaging diagnosis. With the technical advances in MEMS mirror fabrication and endoscopic light coupling methods, the new SDEOCT system is able to visualize morphological details of the urinary bladder with high image fidelity close to bench-top OCT (e.g., 10μm12μm axial/lateral resolutions, >108dB dynamic range) at a fourfold to eightfold improved frame rate. An in vivo animal study based on a porcine acute inflammation model following protamine sulfate instillation is performed to further evaluate the utility of SDEOCT system to delineate bladder morphology and inflammatory lesions as well as to detect subsurface blood flow. In addition, a preliminary clinical study is performed to identify the morphological features pertinent to bladder cancer diagnosis, including loss of boundary or image contrast between urothelium and the underlying layers, heterogeneous patterns in the cancerous urothelium, and margin between normal and bladder cancers. The results of a human study (91% sensitivity, 80% specificity) suggest that SDEOCT enables a high-resolution cross-sectional image of human bladder structures to detect transitional cell carcinomas (TCC); however, due to reduced imaging depth of SDEOCT in cancerous lesions, staging of bladder cancers may be limited to T1 to T2a (prior to muscle invasion).

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© 2007 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Zhenguo Wang ; Christopher S. D. Lee ; Wayne C. Waltzer ; Jingxuan Liu ; Huikai Xie, et al.
"In vivo bladder imaging with microelectromechanical-systems-based endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography", J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034009 (July 03, 2007). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2749744


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