Research Papers

Characterization of vulnerable plaques by multiphoton microscopy

[+] Author Affiliations
Magnus Borstad Lilledahl

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, O.S. Bragstads Plass 2A, 7491 Trondheim, Norway

Olav Anton Haugen

St. Olav’s Hospital, Department of Pathology and Medical Genetics, Olav Kyrres Gate 17, 7006 Trondheim, Norway and, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children’s and Women’s Health, Olav Kyrres Gate 11, 7491 Trondheim, Norway

Catharina de Lange Davies

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim, Norway

Lars Othar Svaasand

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, O.S. Bragstads Plass 2A, 7491 Trondheim, Norway

J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044005 (August 17, 2007). doi:10.1117/1.2772652
History: Received November 21, 2006; Revised April 20, 2007; Accepted April 24, 2007; Published August 17, 2007
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Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in the United States; the majority of these deaths are caused by the rupture of vulnerable plaques. An important feature of vulnerable plaques is the thickness of the fibrous cap that covers the necrotic core. A thickness of less than 65μm has been proposed as a value that renders the plaque prone to rupture. This work shows that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can image the plaque with μm resolution to a depth deeper than 65μm. The fibrous cap emits primarily second harmonic generation due to collagen, in contrast to the necrotic core and healthy artery, which emits primarily two-photon excited fluorescence from elastin. This gives a good demarcation of the fibrous cap from underlying layers, facilitating the measurement of the fibrous cap thickness. Based on a measure of the collagen/elastin ratio, plaques were detected with a sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 81%. Furthermore, the technique gives detailed information on the structure of the collagen network in the fibrous cap. This network ultimately determines the mechanical strength of the plaque. A mechanical model based on this information could yield a measure of the propensity of the plaque to rupture.

Figures in this Article
© 2007 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Magnus Borstad Lilledahl ; Olav Anton Haugen ; Catharina de Lange Davies and Lars Othar Svaasand
"Characterization of vulnerable plaques by multiphoton microscopy", J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044005 (August 17, 2007). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2772652


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