Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) is used to evaluate the structure and pathology of regenerating mouse skeletal muscle autografts for the first time. The death of myofibers with associated inflammation and subsequent new muscle formation in this graft model represents key features of necrosis and inflammation in the human disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We perform 3D-OCT imaging of excised autografts and compare OCT images with coregistered histology. The OCT images readily distinguish the necrotic and inflammatory tissue of the graft from the intact healthy muscle fibers in the underlying host tissue. These preliminary findings suggest that, with further development, 3D-OCT could be used as a tool for the evaluation of small-animal muscle morphology and pathology, in particular, for analysis of mouse models of muscular dystrophy.