Research Papers

Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture

[+] Author Affiliations
Jonathan T. C. Liu

Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, and School of Medicine, James H. Clark Center for Biomedical Engineering and Science, Stanford, California 94305

Michael J. Mandella

Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, California 94305

James M. Crawford

University of Florida, Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610

Christopher H. Contag

Stanford University, School of Medicine, James H. Clark Center for Biomedical Engineering and Science, Stanford, California 94305

Thomas D. Wang

University of Michigan, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109

Gordon S. Kino

Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, California 94305

J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034020 (June 11, 2008). doi:10.1117/1.2939428
History: Received October 22, 2007; Revised December 09, 2007; Accepted January 21, 2008; Published June 11, 2008
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Miniature endoscopic microscopes, with subcellular imaging capabilities, will enable in vivo detection of molecularly-targeted fluorescent probes for early disease detection. To optimize a dual-axis confocal microscope (DACM) design for this purpose, we use a tabletop instrument to determine the ability of this technology to perform optical sectioning deep within tissue. First, we determine how tissue scattering deteriorates the diffraction-limited transverse and vertical responses in reflectance imaging. Specifically, the vertical response of a DACM to a plane reflector is measured at various depths in a scattering phantom and compared with diffraction theory and Monte Carlo scattering simulations. Similarly, transverse line scans across a knife-edge target are performed at various depths in a scattering phantom. Second, as a practical demonstration of deep-tissue fluorescence microscopy that corroborates the findings from our scattering experiments, 3-D fluorescence images are obtained in thick human gastrointestinal mucosal specimens. Our results demonstrate efficient rejection of scattered light in a DACM, which enables deep optical sectioning in tissue with subcellular resolution that can distinguish between normal and premalignant pathologies.

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© 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Jonathan T. C. Liu ; Michael J. Mandella ; James M. Crawford ; Christopher H. Contag ; Thomas D. Wang, et al.
"Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture", J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034020 (June 11, 2008). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2939428


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