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Research Papers

Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model

[+] Author Affiliations
Kwang Hyun Song, Erich W. Stein

Washington University in Saint Louis, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Campus Box 1097, One Brookings Drive, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130-4899

Julie A. Margenthaler

Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, 660 South Euclid, Campus Box 8109, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110

Lihong V. Wang

Washington University in Saint Louis, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Campus Box 1097, One Brookings Drive, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130-4899

J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054033 (September 15, 2008). doi:10.1117/1.2976427
History: Received February 28, 2008; Revised May 28, 2008; Accepted May 29, 2008; Published September 15, 2008
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Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard method of axillary staging for patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Even though SLNB using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure with associated morbidity. Axillary ultrasound has emerged as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the axilla, but it can only assess morphology and cannot specifically identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). In this pilot study, we propose a noninvasive photoacoustic SLN identification system using methylene blue injection in a rat model. We successfully image a SLN with high optical contrast (146±41, standard deviation) and good ultrasonic resolution (500μm)in vivo. We also show potential feasibility for clinical applications by imaging 20- and 31-mm-deep SLNs in 3-D and 2-D, respectively. Our results suggest that this technology would be a useful clinical tool, allowing clinicians to identify SLNs noninvasively in vivo.

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© 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Kwang Hyun Song ; Julie A. Margenthaler ; Lihong V. Wang and Erich W. Stein
"Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model", J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054033 (September 15, 2008). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2976427


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