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Research Papers

In-vivo optical imaging of hsp70 expression to assess collateral tissue damage associated with infrared laser ablation of skin

[+] Author Affiliations
Gerald J. Wilmink

Vanderbilt University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, Tennessee 37235

Susan R. Opalenik

Vanderbilt University, Department of Pathology, Nashville, Tennessee 37235

Joshua T. Beckham

Vanderbilt University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, Tennessee 37235

Mark A. Mackanos

Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5119

Lillian B. Nanney

Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Department of Plastic Surgery, Cell and Developmental Biology, Nashville, Tennessee 37212

Christopher H. Contag

Stanford School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Radiology, Stanford, California 94305-5119

Jeffrey M. Davidson

Vanderbilt University, Department of Pathology, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Research Service, Nashville, Tennessee 37212

E. Duco Jansen

Vanderbilt University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, Tennessee 37235

J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054066 (October 06, 2008). doi:10.1117/1.2992594
History: Received November 08, 2007; Revised August 05, 2008; Accepted August 15, 2008; Published October 06, 2008
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Laser surgical ablation is achieved by selecting laser parameters that remove confined volumes of target tissue and cause minimal collateral damage. Previous studies have measured the effects of wavelength on ablation, but neglected to measure the cellular impact of ablation on cells outside the lethal zone. In this study, we use optical imaging in addition to conventional assessment techniques to evaluate lethal and sublethal collateral damage after ablative surgery with a free-electron laser (FEL). Heat shock protein (HSP) expression is used as a sensitive quantitative marker of sublethal damage in a transgenic mouse strain, with the hsp70 promoter driving luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression (hsp70A1-L2G). To examine the wavelength dependence in the mid-IR, laser surgery is conducted on the hsp70A1-L2G mouse using wavelengths targeting water (OH stretch mode, 2.94μm), protein (amide-II band, 6.45μm), and both water and protein (amide-I band, 6.10μm). For all wavelengths tested, the magnitude of hsp70 expression is dose-dependent and maximal 5to12h after surgery. Tissues treated at 6.45μm have approximately 4× higher hsp70 expression than 6.10μm. Histology shows that under comparable fluences, tissue injury at the 2.94-μm wavelength was 2× and 3× deeper than 6.45 and 6.10μm, respectively. The 6.10-μm wavelength generates the least amount of epidermal hyperplasia. Taken together, this data suggests that the 6.10-μm wavelength is a superior wavelength for laser ablation of skin.

Figures in this Article
© 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Gerald J. Wilmink ; Susan R. Opalenik ; Joshua T. Beckham ; Mark A. Mackanos ; Lillian B. Nanney, et al.
"In-vivo optical imaging of hsp70 expression to assess collateral tissue damage associated with infrared laser ablation of skin", J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054066 (October 06, 2008). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2992594


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