An adaptive optics (AO) system was incorporated into a laser retinal exposure setup in order to correct for refractive error and higher-order aberrations of the nonhuman primate (NHP) eye during an in vivo retinal measurement. Using this system, the for a , small spot size exposure was measured to be total intraocular energy (TIE), a reduction of 22% from the value measured without aberration correction. The for a , exposure was measured to be TIE, the lowest reported for a ns-duration exposure. This is a reduction of 37% from the value measured without aberration correction and is a factor of only 2.6 higher than the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for a , visible wavelength small spot size exposure. The trend of in vitro measurements using retinal explants suggests that the in vivo for small spot-size exposures could potentially be one order of magnitude smaller than the previously reported in vivo. Distortion of the incident laser beam by ocular aberrations cannot fully explain the discrepancy between the in vivo measurements with no aberration correction and the in vitro results.