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Research Papers

In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology

[+] Author Affiliations
Cho-Shuen Hsieh

National Taiwan University, Department of Electrical Engineering, and, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, Taipei 10617, Taiwan

Ching-Yi Ko

National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Keelung 20224, Taiwan

Szu-Yu Chen, Tzu-Ming Liu

National Taiwan University, Department of Electrical Engineering, and, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, Taipei 10617, Taiwan

Jian-Shiung Wu, Chin-Hwa Hu

National Taiwan Ocean University, Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Keelung 20224, Taiwan

Chi-Kuang Sun

National Taiwan University, Department of Electrical Engineering, and, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, Academia Sinica, Research Center for Applied Sciences, Taipei 10617, Taiwan

J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (February 21, 2008November 03, 2008November 04, 2008December 30, 2008). doi:10.1117/1.3050423
History: Received February 21, 2008; Revised November 03, 2008; Accepted November 04, 2008; Published December 30, 2008
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Gene expression plays an important role in embryo development and organ function. Previous studies have shown that harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) can be used as a fluorescence signal-independent, minimally invasive method with a subcellular 3-D resolution and a penetration depth in the order of millimeters for long-term continuous imaging of vertebrate embryos. We show that it is ideal to combine in vivo HGM with the morphant technology for minimally invasive, long-term continuous observation of gene expression in the nervous system of vertebrate embryos. Since second- and third-harmonic generations (SHG, THG) are virtual-state-transition-based systems that depend only on the structure of the organisms, they are not temporally limited by the expression of the fluorescence proteins. We successfully identified the expression of the zarnt2a and the hif-1α, 2α, and 3α genes in the nervous system of zebrafish embryos with specific knockdown genes by microscopically observing the embryos from the early stages of embryogenesis. The results from a combination of the two different modalities, i.e., SHG microscopy and THG microscopy, successfully revealed the weak cell adhesion, cell apoptosis, nerve formation reduction, and neural tube distortion in the morphant zebrafish embryos.

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© 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Cho-Shuen Hsieh ; Ching-Yi Ko ; Szu-Yu Chen ; Jian-Shiung Wu ; Chi-Kuang Sun, et al.
"In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology", J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (February 21, 2008November 03, 2008November 04, 2008December 30, 2008). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3050423


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