The morphologic changes of living cells under drug interactions were studied by using gold nanoparticles and dark-field optical section microscopy. The gold nanoparticles were coated with poly (L-lysine), which attached to the membranes of various cells by way of electrostatic attractive force. A three-dimensional (3-D) morphological image was obtained by measuring the peak scattering intensities of gold nanoparticles at different focal planes. An algorithm for the reconstruction of 3-D cell morphology was presented. With the measured nanoparticle images and calculations, we show morphologic changes of lung cancer cells under the interaction of cytochalasin D drug at different times.