Research Papers: Imaging

Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery

[+] Author Affiliations
Jonathan T. C. Liu, Michael J. Mandella

Stanford University School of Medicine, Clark Center for Biomedical Engineering and Science, Stanford, California 94305 and Stanford University School of Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, California 94305

Nathan O. Loewke, Henry Haeberle

Stanford University School of Medicine, Clark Center for Biomedical Engineering and Science, Stanford, California 94305

Hyejun Ra, Wibool Piyawattanametha

Stanford University School of Medicine, Clark Center for Biomedical Engineering and Science, Stanford, California 94305 and Stanford University School of Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, California 94305

Olav Solgaard, Gordon S. Kino

Stanford University School of Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, California 94305

Christopher H. Contag

Stanford University School of Medicine, Clark Center for Biomedical Engineering and Science, Stanford, California 94305

J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (April 21, 2010). doi:10.1117/1.3386055
History: Received October 19, 2009; Revised January 30, 2010; Accepted March 10, 2010; Published April 21, 2010; Online April 21, 2010
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A fluorescence confocal microscope incorporating a 1.8-mm-diam gradient-index relay lens is developed for in vivo histological guidance during resection of brain tumors. The microscope utilizes a dual-axis confocal architecture to efficiently reject out-of-focus light for high-contrast optical sectioning. A biaxial microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanning mirror is actuated at resonance along each axis to achieve a large field of view with low-voltage waveforms. The unstable Lissajous scan, which results from actuating the orthogonal axes of the MEMS mirror at highly disparate resonance frequencies, is optimized to fully sample 500×500pixels at two frames per second. Optically sectioned fluorescence images of brain tissues are obtained in living mice to demonstrate the utility of this microscope for image-guided resections.

Figures in this Article
© 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Jonathan T. C. Liu ; Michael J. Mandella ; Nathan O. Loewke ; Henry Haeberle ; Hyejun Ra, et al.
"Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery", J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026029 (April 21, 2010). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3386055


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