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Research Papers: Therapeutic

Comparative study of photothermolysis of cancer cells with nuclear-targeted or cytoplasm-targeted gold nanospheres: continuous wave or pulsed lasers

[+] Author Affiliations
Xiaohua Huang

Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laser Dynamics Laboratory, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 and The University of Memphis, Department of Chemistry, 411 Smith Chemistry Building, Memphis, Tennessee 38152

Bin Kang, Wei Qian, Megan A. Mackey

Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laser Dynamics Laboratory, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332

Po C. Chen, Adegboyega K. Oyelere

Georgia Institute of Technology, Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences and Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332

Ivan H. El-Sayed

University of California at San Francisco, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 521 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143

Mostafa A. El-Sayed

Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laser Dynamics Laboratory, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332

J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 058002 (October 29, 2010). doi:10.1117/1.3486538
History: Received September 29, 2009; Revised July 02, 2010; Accepted July 21, 2010; Published October 29, 2010; Online October 29, 2010
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We conduct a comparative study on the efficiency and cell death pathways of continuous wave (cw) and nanosecond pulsed laser photothermal cancer therapy using gold nanospheres delivered to either the cytoplasm or nucleus of cancer cells. Cytoplasm localization is achieved using arginine-glycine-aspartate peptide modified gold nanospheres, which target integrin receptors on the cell surface and are subsequently internalized by the cells. Nuclear delivery is achieved by conjugating the gold nanospheres with nuclear localization sequence peptides originating from the simian virus. Photothermal experiments show that cell death can be induced with a single pulse of a nanosecond laser more efficiently than with a cw laser. When the cw laser is applied, gold nanospheres localized in the cytoplasm are more effective in inducing cell destruction than gold nanospheres localized at the nucleus. The opposite effect is observed when the nanosecond pulsed laser is used, suggesting that plasmonic field enhancement of the nonlinear absorption processes occurs at high localization of gold nanospheres at the nucleus. Cell death pathways are further investigated via a standard apoptosis kit to show that the cell death mechanisms depend on the type of laser used. While the cw laser induces cell death via apoptosis, the nanosecond pulsed laser leads to cell necrosis. These studies add mechanistic insight to gold nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy of cancer.

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© 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Xiaohua Huang ; Bin Kang ; Po C. Chen ; Ivan H. El-Sayed ; Mostafa A. El-Sayed, et al.
"Comparative study of photothermolysis of cancer cells with nuclear-targeted or cytoplasm-targeted gold nanospheres: continuous wave or pulsed lasers", J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 058002 (October 29, 2010). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3486538


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