Special Section on Optical Diagnostic and Biophotonic Methods from Bench to Bedside

“Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal

[+] Author Affiliations
Andrei V. Medvedev

Georgetown University Medical Center, Center for Functional and Molecular Imaging, Washington, DC 20057

Jana M. Kainerstorfer

University of Vienna, Department of Physics, Vienna, Austria and Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health Section on Analytical and Functional Biophotonics, Program on Pediatric Imaging and Tissue Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20892

Sergey V. Borisov

Georgetown University Medical Center, Center for Functional and Molecular Imaging, Washington, DC 20057

Amir H. Gandjbakhche

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health Section on Analytical and Functional Biophotonics, Program on Pediatric Imaging and Tissue Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20892

John VanMeter

Georgetown University Medical Center, Center for Functional and Molecular Imaging, Washington, DC 20057

J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061702 (November 23, 2010). doi:10.1117/1.3505007
History: Received February 27, 2010; Accepted April 16, 2010; Published November 23, 2010; Online November 23, 2010
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Near-infrared spectroscopy is a novel imaging technique potentially sensitive to both brain hemodynamics (slow signal) and neuronal activity (fast optical signal, FOS). The big challenge of measuring FOS noninvasively lies in the presumably low signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, detectability of the FOS has been controversially discussed. We present reliable detection of FOS from 11 individuals concurrently with electroencephalogram (EEG) during a Go-NoGo task. Probes were placed bilaterally over prefrontal cortex. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used for artifact removal. Correlation coefficient in the best correlated FOS–EEG ICA pairs was highly significant (p < 10−8), and event-related optical signal (EROS) was found in all subjects. Several EROS components were similar to the event-related potential (ERP) components. The most robust “optical N200” at t = 225 ms coincided with the N200 ERP; both signals showed significant difference between targets and nontargets, and their timing correlated with subject's reaction time. Correlation between FOS and EEG even in single trials provides further evidence that at least some FOS components “reflect” electrical brain processes directly. The data provide evidence for the early involvement of prefrontal cortex in rapid object recognition. EROS is highly localized and can provide cost-effective imaging tools for cortical mapping of cognitive processes.

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© 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Andrei V. Medvedev ; Jana M. Kainerstorfer ; Sergey V. Borisov ; Amir H. Gandjbakhche and John VanMeter
"“Seeing” electroencephalogram through the skull: imaging prefrontal cortex with fast optical signal", J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061702 (November 23, 2010). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3505007


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