Research Papers: Imaging

Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

[+] Author Affiliations
Evelyne C. C. Cauberg

Academic Medical Center, Department of Urology, P. O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Daniël M. de Bruin, Dirk J. Faber

Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, P. O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Theo M. de Reijke

Academic Medical Center, Department of Urology, P. O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Mike Visser

Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Pathology, P. O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Jean J. M. C. H. de la Rosette

Academic Medical Center, Department of Urology, P. O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Ton G. van Leeuwen

University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands and Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, P. O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands

J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066013 (December 15, 2010). doi:10.1117/1.3512206
History: Received April 28, 2010; Revised August 28, 2010; Accepted September 27, 2010; Published December 15, 2010
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Real-time grading of bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) is clinically important, but the current standard for grading (histopathology) cannot provide this information. Based on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured optical attenuation (μt), the grade of bladder UC could potentially be assessed in real time. We evaluate ex vivo whether μt differs between different grades of UC and benign bladder tissue. Human bladder tissue specimens are examined ex vivo by 850-nm OCT using dynamic focusing. Three observers independently determine the μt from the OCT images, and three pathologists independently review the corresponding histology slides. For both methods, a consensus diagnosis is made. We include 76 OCT scans from 54 bladder samples obtained in 20 procedures on 18 patients. The median (interquartile range) μt of benign tissue is 5.75 mm−1 (4.77 to 6.14) versus 5.52 mm−1 (3.47 to 5.90), 4.85 mm−1 (4.25 to 6.50), and 5.62 mm−1 (5.01 to 6.29) for grade 1, 2, and 3 UC, respectively (p = 0.732). Interobserver agreement of histopathology is “substantial” [Kappa 0.62, 95% confidence interval (IC) 0.54 to 0.70] compared to “almost perfect” [interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.87, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.92] for OCT. Quantitative OCT analysis (by μt) does not detect morphological UC changes. This may be due to factors typical for an ex-vivo experimental setting.

Figures in this Article
© 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Evelyne C. C. Cauberg ; Daniël M. de Bruin ; Dirk J. Faber ; Theo M. de Reijke ; Mike Visser, et al.
"Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder", J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066013 (December 15, 2010). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3512206


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