Research Papers: General

Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited

[+] Author Affiliations
Wenfeng Xia, Daniele Piras, Michelle Heijblom, Wiendelt Steenbergen, Srirang Manohar

University of Twente, Biomedical Photonic Imaging group, Mira Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede, The Netherlands

Ton G. van Leeuwen

University of Twente, Biomedical Photonic Imaging group, Mira Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede, The Netherlands

University of Amsterdam, Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 2270, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands

J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 075002 (July 06, 2011). doi:10.1117/1.3597616
History: Received February 04, 2011; Revised May 12, 2011; Accepted May 16, 2011; Published July 06, 2011; Online July 06, 2011
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A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F–T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where temperature distributions during F–T are relatively homogeneous. In this work, in breast-sized samples we observed substantial temperature differences between the shallow regions and the interior during the F–T procedure. We investigated whether spatial variations were also present in the acoustic and optical properties. The speed of sound, acoustic attenuation, and optical reduced scattering coefficients were measured on specimens sampled at various locations in a large phantom. In general, the properties matched values quoted for breast tissue. But while acoustic properties were relatively homogeneous, the reduced scattering was substantially different at the surface compared with the interior. We correlated these variations with gel microstructure inspected using scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the phantom's reduced scattering spatial distribution matches the optical properties of the standard two-layer breast model used in x ray dosimetry. We conclude that large PVA samples prepared using the standard recipe make excellent breast tissue phantoms.

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© 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

Citation

Wenfeng Xia ; Daniele Piras ; Michelle Heijblom ; Wiendelt Steenbergen ; Ton G. van Leeuwen, et al.
"Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited", J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 075002 (July 06, 2011). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3597616


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