Research Papers: Imaging

Video-rate fluorescence lifetime imaging camera with CMOS single-photon avalanche diode arrays and high-speed imaging algorithm

[+] Author Affiliations
David D.-U. Li

University of Sussex, Biomedical Engineering Group, Department of Engineering and Design, School of Engineering and Informatics, Brighton BN1 9QT, United Kingdom

University of Edinburgh, Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, Joint Research Institute for Signal & Image Processing/Integrated Systems/Energy/Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Faraday Building, King's Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, Scotland, United Kingdom

Jochen Arlt

University of Edinburgh, SUPA, COSMIC, School of Physics and Astronomy, Joseph Black Building, King's Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland, United Kingdom

David Tyndall, Richard Walker, Robert K. Henderson

University of Edinburgh, Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, Joint Research Institute for Signal & Image Processing/Integrated Systems/Energy/Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Faraday Building, King's Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, Scotland, United Kingdom

Justin Richardson

University of Edinburgh, Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, Joint Research Institute for Signal & Image Processing/Integrated Systems/Energy/Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Faraday Building, King's Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, Scotland, United Kingdom

STMicroelectronics, 33 Pinkhill, Edinburgh EH12 7BF, Scotland, United Kingdom

David Stoppa

Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Smart Optical Sensors and Interfaces, 38122 Trento, Italy

Edoardo Charbon

Delft University of Technology, Faculty Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Mekelweg 4, 2628CD Delft, The Netherlands

J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 096012 (September 15, 2011). doi:10.1117/1.3625288
History: Received April 19, 2011; Revised July 20, 2011; Accepted July 21, 2011; Published September 15, 2011; Online September 15, 2011
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A high-speed and hardware-only algorithm using a center of mass method has been proposed for single-detector fluorescence lifetime sensing applications. This algorithm is now implemented on a field programmable gate array to provide fast lifetime estimates from a 32 × 32 low dark count 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) plus time-to-digital converter array. A simple look-up table is included to enhance the lifetime resolvability range and photon economics, making it comparable to the commonly used least-square method and maximum-likelihood estimation based software. To demonstrate its performance, a widefield microscope was adapted to accommodate the SPAD array and image different test samples. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy on fluorescent beads in Rhodamine 6G at a frame rate of 50 fps is also shown.

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© 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

Citation

David D.-U. Li ; Jochen Arlt ; David Tyndall ; Richard Walker ; Justin Richardson, et al.
"Video-rate fluorescence lifetime imaging camera with CMOS single-photon avalanche diode arrays and high-speed imaging algorithm", J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 096012 (September 15, 2011). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3625288


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