To make direct comparisons of TPEF yields excited with 140 and sub-10 TLP, all the measured TPEF spectra are normalized to exposure-time for each phantom (5.25, 13.9, and 0.45 sec for Indo-1, FITC, and TRITC, respectively, with 140 pulse excitation; 14.5, 10.1, and 0.44 sec for Indo-1, FITC, and TRITC, respectively, with sub-10 TLP excitation). 3-D plots are shown in Fig. 6 of normalized TPEF spectra ( and -axis) for each phantom with respect to 140 pulse tuned wavelengths (-axis; excitation with sub-10 TLP at 792 nm). With TPEF yield obtained by integrating the normalized TPEF spectrum, TPEF enhancement is defined as the ratio of TPEF yield excited by the sub-10 TLP to that by 140 pulse tuned to a specific wavelength. Overall TPEF enhancements readily observed in all three phantoms (Fig. 6) show noticeable advantages of excitation with broadband sub-10 TLP over narrowband tunable 140 pulse. At TPE maxima for Indo-1, FITC, and TRITC with 140 pulse tuned to 730 nm, 800 nm, and 840 nm, respectively, TPEF enhancements of 1.6, 6.7, and 5.2 are measured (summarized in Table 1).