The calibration dependencies of the optoacoustic (OA) transformation efficiency on tissue temperature are obtained for the application in OA temperature monitoring during thermal therapies. Accurate measurement of the OA signal amplitude versus temperature is performed in different ex vivo tissues in the temperature range 25°C to 80°C. The investigated tissues were selected to represent different structural components: chicken breast (skeletal muscle), porcine lard (fatty tissue), and porcine liver (richly perfused tissue). Backward mode of the OA signal detection and a narrow probe laser beam were used in the experiments to avoid the influence of changes in light scattering with tissue coagulation on the OA signal amplitude. Measurements were performed in heating and cooling regimes. Characteristic behavior of the OA signal amplitude temperature dependences in different temperature ranges were described in terms of changes in different structural components of the tissue samples. The accuracy of temperature reconstruction from the obtained calibration dependencies for the investigated tissue types is evaluated.