This work reviews our research during the past several years on time-resolved (TR) near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Following an introduction of the measuring modes, two proposed schemes of image reconstruction in TR-DOT are described: one utilizes the full TR data, and the other, referred to as the modified generalized pulse spectrum technique (GPST), uses the featured data extracted from the TR measurement. The performances of the two algorithms in quantitativeness and spatial resolution are comparatively investigated with 2-D simulated data. TR-DOT images are then presented for phantom experiments, which are obtained by using a 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system, and the factors affecting the quantification of the reconstruction are discussed. Finally, in vitro and in vivo imaging examples are illustrated for validating the capibility of TR-DOT to provide not only the anatomical but also the physiological information of the objects.