A novel technique for axial resolution improvement in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) is presented. The technique is based on the deconvolution of modulated optical coherence tomography signals. In FDOCT, the real part of the Fourier transform of the interferogram is modulated by a frequency which depends on the position of the interferogram in space. A slight numerical shift results in a different modulation frequency. By adding two shifted signals, beating can appear in the A-scan. When the amount of shifting is appropriately selected, deconvolution of the resulting depth profile, using suitable modulated kernels, yields a narrower resolution width. A resolution improvement by a factor of can be achieved without the need for a broader bandwidth light source.