More than 400 people attended the workshop, including university researchers, students, government scientists, and industrial entrepreneurs and scientists from the United States and abroad. Scientific presentations by Dr. Robert Balaban (scientific director of the NHLBI) and Dr. Richard Leapman (scientific director of NIBIB) showed the continuous enthusiasm of NIH’s intramural research programs for biophotonics and biomedical optics. The two-day program included 8 sessions with 26 oral presentations by outstanding leaders in the community, poster presentations, and 2 panel discussions. Oral presentations were divided between organ site and advanced imaging technologies. The session topics included brain, eye, breast, microcirculation, image-guided intervention/surgery, minimally invasive technologies, and molecular probes and targets. This structure was designed to emphasize emerging bench-to-bedside concepts, define unmet clinical needs, and identify barriers to clinical translation. Two panel discussions were dedicated to 1) noninvasive imaging of brain function and injury, with a special emphasis on traumatic brain injury, and 2) standardization of optical techniques in terms of design, performance, safety, regulation, and efficacy.