Renal parenchymal tumors, most frequently renal cell carcinomas (RCC), are the sixth most common malignancy diagnosed in men and the eighth most common in women in the United States. In 2012, it is predicted that there will be more than 64,000 new cases of renal cancer in the United States, with roughly 14,000 deaths occurring from the disease.1 Traditionally, these tumors were detected by the classical triad of gross hematuria, flank pain, and an abdominal mass,2 but currently fewer than 10% of patients have these symptoms or signs, and more than half the tumors are detected as incidental findings on abdominal imaging performed for unrelated symptoms, such as abdominal pain. Most incidentally found renal tumors are fairly small (less than 4 cm), and they generally have an excellent prognosis with minimally invasive procedures. Traditionally, nonmetastatic RCCs have been treated with curative intent by radical nephrectomy, a major surgery with concomitant postoperative complications and frequently accompanied by worsening overall kidney function. This procedure can now frequently be performed laparoscopically using robotic technology, reducing morbidity over an open surgical approach without compromising oncologic outcome in appropriately selected cases.3 Furthermore, there is compelling evidence that, for appropriately selected patients, nephron-sparing surgery, in which a partial rather than a total nephrectomy is performed, is as effective as radical nephrectomy.4 These nephron-sparing treatments, originally performed for obligate reasons (solitary kidney, severe renal impairment, bilateral tumors, etc.), have become increasingly popular and now represent standard therapy for tumors that are anatomically amenable to such an approach. Again, based on technical and anatomical considerations, such therapies can often be done laparoscopically with as much success as open surgery in appropriately selected cases.