Endotoxins released in the dental root by Gram-negative microorganisms can be neutralized by calcium hydroxide, when this medication is applied inside the root canal for at least seven days. However, several clinical situations demand faster root canal decontamination. Thus, for faster endotoxin neutralization, endodontists are seeking additional treatments. The in vitro study tested whether or not intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation would be able to neutralize endotoxin within the human dental root canal in a single session. Twenty-four human teeth with one root were mounted between two chambers. After conventional endodontic treatment, root canals were contaminated with Escherichia coli endotoxin. Then they were irradiated or not (controls) in contact mode with an Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 15 Hz, 100 mJ and pulse fluency of ). The endotoxin activity was measured using the limulus lysate technique and data were statistically compared (). The concentration of active endotoxin measured in the negative control group was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (). The concentrations of endotoxin in both irradiated groups were significantly lower than that of the positive control group () and similar to that of negative control group (). A single session of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation is able to neutralize endotoxin in the dental root tissues.