The experimental setup of multimodal optical microscopy is illustrated in Fig. 1. A tunable mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser (Chameleon ultra II, Coherent, Inc.) was used as the excitation source, and it operated at the wavelength of 808 nm with a pulse duration of 140 fs and a pulse repetition rate of 80 MHz. The incident polarization direction and power were controlled by a half-wave plate and a Glan-Taylor polarizer. The sample was placed in the focal plane of the objective using a three-dimensional micro-displacement. The pulse energy of the laser beam was , and the energy density of laser beam was . The laser beam was collimated, reflected by a dichroic mirror (10SWF-750-B, Newport), focused by an oil-immersion objective lens (Olympus America, Inc., Melville, New York), and scanned the sample with a set of two-dimensional scanning galvanometer (6215H, Cambridge). The emitted lights were collected by three channels of RLS, TPL, and SHG, respectively. In RLS channel, resonance scattering light passed through a long-wave-pass optical filter (10LWF-750-B, Newport), and was detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT, H10492-011, Hamamatsu). In TPL and SHG channels, the two-photon and second harmonic lights were epi-collected, separated by a dichroic mirror (10Z20ER.1, Newport), passed through two optical filters (10LWF-500-B and 10BPF70-400, Newport), and were detected by two PMTs (H10492-003, Hamamatsu), respectively. The data from three channels were acquired simultaneously, and the images were reconstructed in real time with a Labview data acquisition card (PCI-6132, National Instruments). The spectrometer (MAYA2000-PRO, Ocean Optics) was used to measure the emission spectrum of gold nanorods.