We have developed a sphere–cylinder birefringence model (SCBM) for anisotropic media. The new model is based on a previously published sphere–cylinder scattering model (SCSM), but the spherical and cylindrical scatterers are embedded in a linearly birefringent medium. A Monte Carlo simulation program for SCBM was also developed by adding a new module to the SCSM program to take into account the effects of birefringence. Simulations of the backscattering Mueller matrix demonstrate that SCBM results in better agreement with experimental results than SCSM and is more suitable to characterize fibrous tissues such as skeletal muscle. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we also examined the characteristics of two-dimensional backscattering Mueller matrix of SCBM and analyzed the influence of linear birefringence.