The MEM-FLIM results are comparable to the reference system. There are several advantages for the MEM-FLIM system over the reference system. (1) The camera can be modulated at the pixel level, permitting the recording of two phase images at once. The acquisition time can thus be shortened by using the MEM-FLIM camera, which causes less photobleaching in the biological sample. (2) The MEM-FLIM camera does not need high-voltage sources and RF amplifiers, and the system is more compact than the reference system. (3) In the MEM-FLIM system, one can change the integration time and the analog gain, which has no effect on the optical system itself. In the conventional frequency-domain FLIM system, one needs to control both the integration time and the MCP voltage to make use of the full dynamic range of the camera. However, changing the MCP voltage by more than approximately 50 V (depending on the intensifier and the MCP voltages used) means changing the system itself, which in turn means that the calibration done at another MCP voltage is no longer reliable. So one needs to pay extra attention when adjusting the settings on the conventional frequency-domain FLIM system. (4) Possible sources of noise and geometric distortion are significantly reduced. (5) The image quality from the MEM-FLIM camera is much better than the conventional intensifier-based CCD camera, and the MEM-FLIM camera thereby reveals more detailed structures in the biological samples. (6) The quantum efficiency of the MEM-FLIM camera is much higher than the reference camera. For the MEM-FLIM camera, the quantum efficiency is determined by the characteristics of the front-illuminated CCD, about 30%, 50%, and 70% at 500, 600, and 700 nm, respectively. For the reference camera, the quantum efficiency of the photo cathode at 500 nm is around 11%. Further, there are losses in other parts of the system, including the fiber optics and the CCD camera, not all of which can be attributed to true quantum effects.