Optical properties of cornea and sclera of the eye and their alterations under the effect of 1.56-μm laser radiation are studied. The laser settings corresponded to the laser treatment regimens used (1) to correct the shape of the cornea and change the refraction of the eye and (2) to improve the hydraulic permeability of the sclera in glaucoma cases. A fiber-optical system to investigate the dynamics of the reflected and transmitted scattered laser radiation and a setup with a double integrating sphere to determine the optical properties of the ocular tissues on the basis of the Monte-Carlo simulation of the propagation of light was used. When the radiation characteristics corresponded to the treatment regimens for correcting the shape of the cornea, no noticeable changes were detected in its optical properties. When irradiating the sclera in conditions corresponding to the treatment regimens for improving its hydraulic permeability, the optical characteristics of the tissue showed definite changes. The results obtained as to the dynamics of the optical signals during the course of laser irradiation of the cornea and sclera create prerequisites for designing test systems to be used with novel medical laser techniques for correcting visual abnormalities.