A near-IR, single-mode, pigtailed, diode laser (QFLD-1450, Qphotonics, Ann Arbor, Michigan) emitting up to 150 mW of power at a wavelength of 1455 nm was operated in CW mode. Laser radiation at 1455 nm has an () optical penetration depth of in water (the dominant soft tissue absorber in the near-IR spectrum),25 intended to approximate the CN diameter, for more efficient absorption of the laser energy in the nerve. The 1455 nm laser was integrated into a compact, custom-built ONS system, consisting of the following components. A low-power, red diode laser aiming beam (QFLD-660, QPhotonics) with a wavelength of 660 nm was coupled into a single-mode fiber (SMF). An SMF coupler ( Dual Window Coupler, Fiber Instrument Sales, Oriskany, New York) with a coupling ratio combined both visible and IR laser beams into a single SMF. The fiber coupler output was connected to a custom-built 10-Fr [3.4-mm-outer diameter (OD)] laparoscopic probe consisting of -cladding SMF (SMF-28, Corning, New York) with an aspheric lens (354430C, 2-mm-OD, 5-mm-focal-length, Thorlabs, Newton, New Jersey) attached to the distal tip for beam collimation. The custom 3.4-mm-OD laparoscopic probe provided a collimated 1.0-mm-diameter () laser spot with Gaussian spatial beam profile on the nerve surface at a working distance of . An in-line optical shutter (SH-200-1480-9/125, Oz Optics, Ottawa, Canada) in the IR laser SMF arm provided rapid on/off switching of the laser beam during ONS. Coupling into the SMF and the fusion splices attenuated the maximum power output of the probe to .