The patient was a 9-year-old girl with normal growth. At age 7, she began to have seizures with open eyes, deviation of the head to the right, tonic extension of both arms and the right leg, and tonic flexion of the left knee while remaining conscious. The seizures always appeared abruptly with or without auras. The seizure durations ranged from a few seconds up to approximately 1 min. The seizures were refractory to aggressive pharmacologic treatment, occurring two to three times daily, mainly during the night. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a right medial frontal mass lesion which showed isointensity on a T1-weighted image and hyperintensity on a T2-weighted image, suggesting a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) [Fig. 1(a)]. Following the implantation of electrodes on the right frontal cortex, long-term video/ECoG monitoring, cortical mapping, and simultaneous NIRS and ECoG recordings were obtained.