Research Papers: Sensing

Noise-equivalent sensitivity of photoacoustics

[+] Author Affiliations
Amy M. Winkler, Konstantin Maslov, Lihong V. Wang

Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Biomedical Engineering, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130

J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 097003 (Sep 11, 2013). doi:10.1117/1.JBO.18.9.097003
History: Received May 13, 2013; Revised August 4, 2013; Accepted August 7, 2013
Text Size: A A A

Abstract.  The fundamental limitations of photoacoustic microscopy for detecting optically absorbing molecules are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. We experimentally demonstrate noise-equivalent detection sensitivities of 160,000 methylene blue molecules (270 zeptomol or 2.7×1019mol) and 86,000 oxygenated hemoglobin molecules (140 zeptomol) using narrowband continuous-wave photoacoustics. The ultimate sensitivity of photoacoustics is fundamentally limited by thermal noise, which can present in the acoustic detection system as well as in the medium itself. Under the optimized conditions described herein and using commercially available detectors, photoacoustic microscopy can detect as few as 100s of oxygenated hemoglobin molecules. Realizable improvements to the detector may enable single molecule detection of select molecules.

Figures in this Article
© 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Amy M. Winkler ; Konstantin Maslov and Lihong V. Wang
"Noise-equivalent sensitivity of photoacoustics", J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 097003 (Sep 11, 2013). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.18.9.097003


Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Related Book Chapters

Topic Collections

Advertisement
  • Don't have an account?
  • Subscribe to the SPIE Digital Library
  • Create a FREE account to sign up for Digital Library content alerts and gain access to institutional subscriptions remotely.
Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Chapter

Access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions and is not available as part of a personal subscription. Print or electronic versions of individual SPIE books may be purchased via SPIE.org.