We have developed a reflection-based capability of the RetCam® platform, an FDA-cleared pediatric retinal-imaging instrument, for the purpose of measuring macular pigment levels as well as their spatial distributions in infants and children. Our modifications include narrow-band blue-wavelength excitation of the macular pigment absorption in combination with spectrally selective blue-wavelength readout of the reflection signals received by the instrument’s CCD detector array. Furthermore, an algorithm is developed that allows the computation of optical density maps for the macular pigment relative to peripheral retinal areas. This made it possible for the first time to directly measure macular pigment levels and their spatial features in the developing human retina. In contrast to adults, infants with measurable pigment levels had almost exclusively a narrow, circularly symmetric, pigment distribution. The described methodology holds promise for future investigations into the role of macular pigment in the developing human retina and the effect of dietary interventions in diseases resulting from a lack of normal carotenoid levels.