The same protocol was used to process blood samples obtained from confirmed IDA and Thal patients. Samples were collected from all the Thal patients ( Thal) of Voluntary Health Service, Chennai, India, waiting for blood transfusion. Similarly, samples were collected from confirmed IDA patients of Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, India. The patients were informed about the investigation, and proper consents were obtained. The IDA subjects (nine females and six males) had a median age of 26 years, and the Hb level for them varied from 6.2 to 9.5 with a median of . There were 15 Thal subjects (seven females and eight males) with a median age of 20 years, and the Hb level for them varied from 4.2 to 7.5 with a median of . The normal controls were students, researchers, and staff nurses (seven females and eight males) with an average age of 25, from whom informed consents were obtained. The Hb level for the control set varied from 11.2 to 15.5 with a median of .