There is a growing interest in imaging fluorescence contrast at depth within living tissues over wide fields of view and in real time. Most methods used to date to improve depth detection of fluorescence information involve acquisition of multiple images, postprocessing of the data using a light propagation model, and are capable of providing either depth-sectioned or tomographic fluorescence information. We introduce a method, termed masked detection of structured illumination, that allows the enhancement of fluorescence imaging at depth without postprocessing. This method relies on the scanning of a collimated beam onto a turbid medium and the physical masking of the point spread function on the detection arm before acquisition on a CCD camera. By preferentially collecting diffuse photons at a chosen source-detector range, this method enhances fluorescence information at depth and has the potential to form images without postprocessing and in real time.