Research Papers: Sensing

Polarization gating enables sarcomere length measurements by laser diffraction in fibrotic muscle

[+] Author Affiliations
Kevin W. Young

University of California San Diego, Department of Bioengineering, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0412, United States

VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, California 92161, United States

Sudarshan Dayanidhi

VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, California 92161, United States

University of California San Diego, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0863, United States

Richard L. Lieber

University of California San Diego, Department of Bioengineering, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0412, United States

VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, California 92161, United States

University of California San Diego, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0863, United States

Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, 345 E. Superior Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, United States

J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117009 (Nov 25, 2014). doi:10.1117/1.JBO.19.11.117009
History: Received September 23, 2014; Accepted October 23, 2014
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Abstract.  Sarcomere length is a key parameter commonly measured in muscle physiology since it dictates striated muscle active force. Laser diffraction (LD)–based measurements of sarcomere length are time-efficient and sample a greater number of sarcomeres compared with traditional microscopy–based techniques. However, a limitation to LD techniques is that signal quality is severely degraded by scattering events as photons propagate through tissue. Consequently, sarcomere length measurements are unattainable when the number of scattering events is sufficiently large in muscle tissue with a high scattering probability. This occurs in fibrotic skeletal muscle seen in muscular dystrophies and secondary to tissue trauma, thus eliminating the use of LD to study these skeletal muscle ailments. Here, we utilize polarization gating to extract diffracted signals that are buried in noise created by scattering. Importantly, we demonstrate that polarization-gated laser diffraction (PGLD) enables sarcomere length measurements in muscles from chronically immobilized mice hind limbs; these muscles have a substantial increase of intramuscular connective tissue that scatter light and disable sarcomere length measurements by traditional LD. Further, we compare PGLD sarcomere lengths to those measured by bright field (BF) and confocal microscopy as positive controls and reveal a significant bias of BF but not of confocal microscopy.

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© 2014 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Kevin W. Young ; Sudarshan Dayanidhi and Richard L. Lieber
"Polarization gating enables sarcomere length measurements by laser diffraction in fibrotic muscle", J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 117009 (Nov 25, 2014). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.19.11.117009


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