Colloid response is a type of tumor response that occurs after preoperative radiochemotherapy for rectal carcinoma. Given its important influence on survival, the colloid response should be considered when estimating histopathological reactions. Here, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was applied to evaluate the colloid response ex vivo. This study demonstrated that MPM has the capability to visualize the colloid response in the absence of labels and can, in particular, identify rare residual carcinomatous cells in mucin pools. These results highlight the potential of this nonlinear optical technique as a diagnostic tool for tumor response after neoadjuvant treatment.