It is known that age-related macular degeneration (AMD),2 retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma,3,4 diabetic retinopathy (DR),5,6 and other eye diseases can produce retinal neural dysfunctions. Different eye diseases can damage different functional layers and cells, causing localized lesions or cell loss at early stages of the disease. For instance, it is established that rods are more vulnerable than cones in early AMD.7,8 Currently, there is no established strategy to allow objective assessment of localized rod dysfunction at high resolution. Because of the complex retinal structure, early detection of eye diseases and reliable evaluation of treatment outcomes require high-resolution examination of retinal morphology and physiology. Optical approaches, such as fundus imaging9,10 and angiography examination,11 are valuable for disease detection and treatment evaluation. By rejecting out-of-focus background light, the scanning laser ophthalmoscope10,12–14 can provide enhanced image quality compared to a conventional fundus camera. Further integration of adaptive optics (AO) has enabled cellular resolution examination of retinal morphology.15–19 Given the unprecedented capability to differentiate individual functional layers, optical coherence tomography (OCT)20 has been extensively employed for depth-resolved examination of morphological abnormalities associated with eye diseases.21–27 However, morphological (structural) and physiological (functional) abnormalities in the retina are not always directly correlated,2,28,29 in terms of the time window and spatial location. In principle, distortions of physiological functions can occur before detectable cell loss and corresponding layer thickness changes in the retina. Therefore, functional evaluation of retinal physiology is important for early detection and reliable treatment assessment of eye diseases. Psychophysical methods, such as the Amsler grid test, visual acuity,30,31 hyperacuity perimetry,32 and microperimetry,33–36 are practical in clinical applications, but they involve higher order cortical processing. In other words, they do not provide exclusive information of retinal physiology and lack the sensitivity required for early disease detection. Electrophysiological approaches such as electroretinography (ERG)37 can be used for objective examination of retinal physiology. In general, it is believed that the a-wave of classic full-field ERG reflects the physiological function of retinal photoreceptors, and the b-wave reflects the physiological function of inner retinal neurons, particularly ON-bipolar cells. However, given the fact that the ERG represents the integral activity of retinal photoreceptors and inner neurons, the clinical interpretation of alterations in full-field ERG components produced by eye diseases can be difficult. Moreover, classical full-field ERG does not provide spatial information in a lateral direction. The focal ERG38–42 and multifocal ERG43,44 have been used to provide limited lateral resolution. Reliable identification of localized dysfunction of different cell types requires a method that can provide an objective evaluation of stimulus-evoked physiological activities at a high resolution. Although it is possible to combine morphological (e.g., high resolution OCT) with physiological (e.g., ERG) evaluation45 to improve retinal study and disease detection, conducting these separate measurements is cost-inefficient and time-consuming. Moreover, the relationship between low spatial resolution in low resolution ERG and high resolution optical imaging is complicated for clinical interpretations.