Research Papers: Therapeutic

Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy

[+] Author Affiliations
Jian J. Zhang, Jason Rongwei Xuan, Ray W. J. Chia

Boston Scientific Corporation, 3070 Orchard Drive, San Jose, California 95134, United States

Danop Rajabhandharaks

Becton, Dickinson and Company, 2350 Qume Dr, San Jose, California 95131, United States

Hui Wang

Illumina, 25861 Industrial Blvd, Hayward, California 94545, United States

Tom Hasenberg

Medical Device Development in San Francisco Bay Area, San Francisco, California, United States

Hyun Wook Kang

Pukyong National University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Room1210, Builiding A12, 45 Yongso-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 608-737, South Korea

J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 128001 (Dec 10, 2015). doi:10.1117/1.JBO.20.12.128001
History: Received July 20, 2015; Accepted October 30, 2015
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Abstract.  Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

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© 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Jian J. Zhang ; Danop Rajabhandharaks ; Jason Rongwei Xuan ; Hui Wang ; Ray W. J. Chia, et al.
"Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy", J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 128001 (Dec 10, 2015). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.20.12.128001


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