Pig eyes (First Vision Tech, Sunnyvale, Texas) were obtained from an abattoir and shipped overnight on ice. For comparison to manual cataract surgery, a open-sky capsulorhexis was performed. For 400- and 800-nm laser cutting, lenses were carefully extracted from the eye without puncturing the lens capsule and stored in balanced salt solution at 4°C until use. Lenses were used within 48 h of extraction. To reduce drying during laser cutting, lenses were held in a plastic sample holder with a saline reservoir beneath. The top surface of the lens capsule was exposed to air during cutting of straight lines between 2 and 4 mm in length. For 1030-nm laser cutting, only the cornea was removed prior to a 5-mm laser capsulotomy using a CATALYS (Abbott Medical Optics) system. After laser cutting in all cases, the anterior lens capsule with laser cuts was removed from the lens, pinned to dental wax, and fixed in 1.25% gluteraldehyde. This helped prevent obscuring of the cut edge by extruding lens material or by folding of the capsule during sample processing. After a minimum of 24 h of fixation at room temperature, samples were processed as follows: 0.1-M sodium cacodylate rinse (30 min), osmium tetraoxide postfixation (1 h), 30% ethanol, 50% ethanol, 70% ethanol, 90% ethanol, and 100% ethanol (20 min each). Samples were then critical point dried and sputter coated with 10 nm of Au/Pd before imaging by SEM (Hitachi S-3400N VP-SEM, Stanford Cell Sciences Imaging Facility).