A Workshop on Standards for the Advancement of Optical Medical Imaging was convened at the Gaithersburg campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology on 26–27 August, 2014. The workshop was attended by a broad swath of the optical medical imaging community. These included optical device developers from small groups and large companies, clinicians highlighting problem case studies, as well as regulatory agency representatives. Papers contributed to that meeting, as well as related papers, were submitted to this special section of the Journal of Biomedical Optics (JBO) and underwent rigorous peer review. The workshop as well as this special section focuses on methodologies that lead to solutions of standardization problems encountered in optical medical imaging.