Research Papers: Imaging

Frequency domain near-infrared multiwavelength imager design using high-speed, direct analog-to-digital conversion

[+] Author Affiliations
Bernhard B. Zimmermann

Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, United States

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States

Qianqian Fang

Northeastern University, Department of Bioengineering, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States

David A. Boas, Stefan A. Carp

Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, United States

J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 016010 (Jan 26, 2016). doi:10.1117/1.JBO.21.1.016010
History: Received October 9, 2015; Accepted December 14, 2015
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Abstract.  Frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) has proven to be a reliable method for quantification of tissue absolute optical properties. We present a full-sampling direct analog-to-digital conversion FD-NIR imager. While we developed this instrument with a focus on high-speed optical breast tomographic imaging, the proposed design is suitable for a wide-range of biophotonic applications where fast, accurate quantification of absolute optical properties is needed. Simultaneous dual wavelength operation at 685 and 830 nm is achieved by concurrent 67.5 and 75 MHz frequency modulation of each laser source, respectively, followed by digitization using a high-speed (180  MS/s) 16-bit A/D converter and hybrid FPGA-assisted demodulation. The instrument supports 25 source locations and features 20 concurrently operating detectors. The noise floor of the instrument was measured at <1.4  pW/Hz, and a dynamic range of 115+ dB, corresponding to nearly six orders of magnitude, has been demonstrated. Titration experiments consisting of 200 different absorption and scattering values were conducted to demonstrate accurate optical property quantification over the entire range of physiologically expected values.

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© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Bernhard B. Zimmermann ; Qianqian Fang ; David A. Boas and Stefan A. Carp
"Frequency domain near-infrared multiwavelength imager design using high-speed, direct analog-to-digital conversion", J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 016010 (Jan 26, 2016). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.21.1.016010


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