Research Papers: Sensing

Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

[+] Author Affiliations
Cassiano Junior Saatkamp, Maurício Liberal de Almeida

Instituto Esperança de Ensino Superior (IESPES), Rua Coaracy Nunes, 3315, Santarém, Pará 68040-100, Brazil

Jeyse Aliana Martins Bispo

Faculdades Integradas do Tapajós—FIT, Rua Rosa Vermelha, No. 335, Aeroporto Velho, Santarém, Pará 68010-200, Brazil

Antonio Luiz Barbosa Pinheiro

Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco—UNICASTELO, Biomedical Engineering Institute, Parque Tecnológico de São José dos Campos, Estrada Dr. Altino Bondesan, 500, São José dos Campos, São Paulo 12247-016, Brazil

Federal University of Bahia—UFBA, Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Av. Araújo Pinho, 62, Salvador, Bahia 40110-150, Brazil

Adriana Barrinha Fernandes, Landulfo Silveira, Jr.

Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco—UNICASTELO, Biomedical Engineering Institute, Parque Tecnológico de São José dos Campos, Estrada Dr. Altino Bondesan, 500, São José dos Campos, São Paulo 12247-016, Brazil

J. Biomed. Opt. 21(3), 037001 (Mar 01, 2016). doi:10.1117/1.JBO.21.3.037001
History: Received October 15, 2015; Accepted February 9, 2016
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Abstract.  Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2  mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

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© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Cassiano Junior Saatkamp ; Maurício Liberal de Almeida ; Jeyse Aliana Martins Bispo ; Antonio Luiz Barbosa Pinheiro ; Adriana Barrinha Fernandes, et al.
"Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease", J. Biomed. Opt. 21(3), 037001 (Mar 01, 2016). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.21.3.037001


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