The purpose of this study is to show that optical clearing agents can be used to increase the visibility of deeply penetrating occlusal lesions that have reached the underlying dentin and spread laterally under the enamel. Previous studies have shown that high refractive index fluids can increase the contrast of caries lesions. Extracted teeth with natural occlusal lesions were imaged with optical coherence tomography (OCT) with and without the addition of a transparent vinyl polysiloxane impression material (VPS) currently used in vivo. The relative intensity of the reflectivity from the underlying lesion area for each sample was measured before and after application of the VPS. Lesion presence was confirmed with polarized light microscopy and microradiography. Application of VPS significantly increased () the integrated reflectivity of subsurface dentinal lesions. This study shows that optical clearing agents can be used to increase the optical penetration and the visibility of subsurface lesions and the dentinal–enamel junction under sound and demineralized enamel in OCT images.