Recently, polarization imaging techniques have been used as potential tools for biomedical diagnosis, such as the detection of abnormal tissues in skin,17,18 liver,19,20 esophagus,21 colon,22,23 cervix,24 bladder,25 and so on.26–28 Nowadays, the cancer incidence is growing fast worldwide, making pathological diagnoses time-consuming. Basically, during a diagnosis process, the pathologists need about half an hour to prepare the stained frozen slices of suspicious tissue samples from the patients. With careful observations using a transmission microscope, the pathologists need to provide quick assessments which are crucial for the surgeons. Compared to the diagnosis using the standard dewaxed slices cut from fixed tissues in paraffin specimens, the quick assessments always lead to a small portion of misdiagnose. In our experiments, we find that when using a DoFP polarimeter for polarization imaging of pathological tissue slices, the experimental results can provide additional useful information but will sometimes be confusing and misleading if the illumination state of polarization (SoP) and the sample are not well matched. For different illumination SoPs, there will be considerable differences in the specimen’s Stokes vector images. In this situation, measuring the sample’s Mueller matrix is conducive to our understanding of the sample’s comprehensive polarization property. Moreover, it is also found that when applied to the thin dewaxed slices of tissues, the intrinsic anisotropic fibrous structures of the cancerous tissues are more prominently highlighted in the Mueller matrix elements related to the circularly polarized light, or the elements in the fourth row and column. Hence, a DoFP polarimeter-based microscope capable of measuring the Mueller matrix may provide useful information of human carcinoma tissue slices.