Special Section on Tissue and Blood Optical Clearing for Biomedical Applications

Optical clearing of melanoma in vivo: characterization by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography

[+] Author Affiliations
Layla Pires

University of São Paulo, São Carlos Institute of Physics, Avenue Trabalhador São-Carlense, 400, São Carlos, São Paulo 13566-590, Brazil

University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Research Tower, 101 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada

Valentin Demidov

University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Research Tower, 101 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada

I. Alex Vitkin

University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Research Tower, 101 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada

University Health Network, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Princess Margaret Cancer Research Tower, 101 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada

University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, FitzGerald Building, Room 106, 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2, Canada

Vanderlei Bagnato, Cristina Kurachi

University of São Paulo, São Carlos Institute of Physics, Avenue Trabalhador São-Carlense, 400, São Carlos, São Paulo 13566-590, Brazil

Brian C. Wilson

University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Research Tower, 101 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada

University Health Network, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Princess Margaret Cancer Research Tower, 101 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada

J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 081210 (Jun 14, 2016). doi:10.1117/1.JBO.21.8.081210
History: Received February 16, 2016; Accepted May 23, 2016
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Abstract.  Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with significant risk of fatality. Due to its pigmentation, light-based imaging and treatment techniques are limited to near the tumor surface, which is inadequate, for example, to evaluate the microvascular density that is associated with prognosis. White-light diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and near-infrared optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to evaluate the effect of a topically applied optical clearing agent (OCA) in melanoma in vivo and to image the microvascular network. DRS was performed using a contact fiber optic probe in the range from 450 to 650 nm. OCT imaging was performed using a swept-source system at 1310 nm. The OCT image data were processed using speckle variance and depth-encoded algorithms. Diffuse reflectance signals decreased with clearing, dropping by 90% after 45 min. OCT was able to image the microvasculature in the pigmented melanoma tissue with good spatial resolution up to a depth of 300  μm without the use of OCA; improved contrast resolution was achieved with optical clearing to a depth of 750  μm in tumor. These findings are relevant to potential clinical applications in melanoma, such as assessing prognosis and treatment responses. Optical clearing may also facilitate the use of light-based treatments such as photodynamic therapy.

Figures in this Article
© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Layla Pires ; Valentin Demidov ; I. Alex Vitkin ; Vanderlei Bagnato ; Cristina Kurachi, et al.
"Optical clearing of melanoma in vivo: characterization by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography", J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 081210 (Jun 14, 2016). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.21.8.081210


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